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under the first classification it is ordinarily greatest degree of satisfaction, if used for 

desirable to specify the cheapest mate- all purposes. This has been definitely prov- 

rial available; however when considering ed by actual experience and, therefore, it 

installations that fall into the second classi- is necessary to select the metal that will 

fication the problem of selecting the mate- withstand the operating conditions suc- 

rials to be specified is of paramount cessfully. Intelligent selection of the proper 

importance. This fact is recognized by both material implies on the part of the engineer 

executives and engineers since it has such a thorough understanding of the corrosive 

a direct bearing on maintenance and re- conditions encountered and a good work- 



pair charges. 



The piping system in an industrial plant 
is an excellent example of one type instal- 
lation where it is desirable to maintain the 
cost per year of service at as low a figure 
as possible. In most plants the piping sys- 
tem has an important bearing on operat- 
ing efficiency and maintenance charges 



ing knowledge of the relative durability of 
the metals available. 

Today the metals most commonly used 
in modern construction work are steel and 
wrought iron. It is not the purpose of this 
discussion to give the technical details re- 
garding the chemical and physical make- 
up and data on the relative durability of 



because failures in pipe lines may cause these material& because information of 
delays in production and frequently neces- 



sitate expensive replacements. When we 
consider that the average plant piping sys- 



that type would be of interest primarily to 
technicians only. 

However, it should be stated that wrought 



tern involves a great variety of services iron differs both chemically and physically 

such as water lines, heating lines, power from all other metals. It is the oldest of all 

system piping, lines handling process solu- the ferrous metals and its most outstanding 

tions, gas and air lines, refrigeration system characteristics are (1) resistance to corro- 

piping and numerous others, and that in sion, and (2) resistance to fatigue failure 

each of these services the pipe is subjected caused by shock or constant vibration. 

to a different set of corrosive conditions, it These characteristics make wrought iron a 

highly desirable metal for a wide variety of 



uses in industry where durability or long 



is obvious that for the most economical in- 
stallation the piping material specified must 

be selected on the basis of its durability or life under severe conditions is an important 
lasting qualities, rather than on the basis 
of its first or warehouse floor cost. 



consideration. 

For almost a quarter of a century prior 



With the wide variation in corrosive 



con- to 1930, pipe was the principal wrought iron 



ditions normally found in actual service, it product available in commercial quantities. 



bvious 



However, since the development and instat- 



ed to serve most economically and with the lation of modern manufacturing facilities by 



2 



A. M. Byers Company, wrought iron plates, alone. Therefore, it is apparent that where 
sheets, structurals and numerous other the cost of materials under consideration 
products have been reintroduced to the for use in construction or maintenance work 



market on a commercial basis. 



During the past five years, wrought iron 
products have come into use for a greater 
number of applications in all branches of 
industry than ever before. This is attributed 
partly to the fact that the economy of speci- 
fying wrought iron has been established 



is but a fraction of the initial or replacement 

cost of the entire installation, then the rela- 
tive durability of those materials assumes 
the position of major importance in making 
the final decision as to which one will be 
used. 



Those who are interested in obtaining 



through its use in a large number of services detailed information on some specific ap- 
over a long period of years. And, after all, plication or applications for wrought iron 
actual service over a long period of time products may secure it by writing direct to 
provides the only reliable indication of the the Engineering Service Department, A. M. 
durability of any metal — manufacturers' Byers Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. That de- 
claims and accelerated test data notwith- partment serves as a clearing house for 



standing. 



Another factor that has a direct bear- 
ing on the constantly broadening use of 
wrought iron products is the comparatively 
small increase in first or initial cost of a 
wrought iron installation over that of a 
similar installation using the cheapest ma- 
terial available. In some instances when 
materials are being considered, the costs 
of those materials on the warehouse floor 
are compared and the decision as to which 
one will be used is made on that basis. 



information on wrought iron products and 
their applications to problems involving 
corrosion, fatigue, current design trends, 
and fabrication. On certain of the services 
for which there has been a great demand 
for detailed data regarding the use of 
wrought iron the necessary information has 
been published in report form. For other 
services, reports are prepared at the time 
the request is made in order to meet the 
individual requirements. 



A. M. Byers Company has been a leading 



Obviously, such a comparison does not give producer of the highest quality wrought iron 

a true picture of relative costs because in products for more than 70 years. During that 

either case the fixed charges, which include time, it is only natural that we should have 

transportation, labor and overhead, must developed a sound working knowledge of 

be added to the cost of material before the material and its applications in the 

the installation is completed and ready to various branches of industry. That knowl- 

operate. These added costs for fabrication edge is made available, without charge, to 

and installation frequently amount to as specifiers and users of materials through 

much as, or more than the cost of material the Engineering Service Department. 



3 





Wrought iron floor plates on a Western Maryland Railroad 
bridge at Thurmont, Maryland. 



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All water lines and the gas, oil, and air lines under concrete 
at this service station in New Orleans, Louisiana, were 
installed using wrought iron pipe. 





Blow case constructed of wrought iron plates and rivets for 
the Phelps-Dodge Corporation, Douglas, Arizona. 



Installing wrought iron pipe lor the plumbing and heating 
systems in a large commercial building. 





Locomotive watering troughs, built of wrought iron, on the 
main line oi the New York Central Railroad at Silver Creek. 
New York. 



Semi-circular perforated wrought iron drain line installed a 
short time ago in the Old Union Tunnel of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad at Baltimore. The weep pipes also are wrought iron. 



4 






Towing a 1000-foot wrought 
iron sewer outfall line out 
to sea at Loch Arbour, N. J. 
This 12" line is subjected to 
corrosion from both salt 
water and sewage. 




Wrought iron bands on fer- 
menting tanks at the Du- 
quesne Brewing Company 
plant, Pittsburgh. A wood 
tank is no better than the 
bands which hold it to- 
gether. Wrought iron bands 
have proved their dura- 
bility. 



Heating coils in sewage sludge digestion tanks at the 
Peoria, Illinois, Sewage Treatment Plant. Sewage is highly 
corrosive and wrought iron is used for many services in 
treatment and disposal work. 





Wrought iron conduit in the lighting system on 
the new Pittsburgh-Homestead High Level Bridge. 
Wrought iron pipe is used generally for conduit 
installations subject to corrosion. 



Installing wrought iron O.D. tubes in an air pre- 
heater at a large power plant in Chicago. 



5 



Flag poles, fabricated from wrought iron pipe, 
in front of the Archives Bidg., Washington, D. C. 









Cargo lines oi wrought iron pipe on the deck of the "New 
Haven Socony" — one of the three tankers placed in service 
a short time ago by the Standard-Vacuum Transportation 
Company. Wrought iron was used on these tankers for 
eighteen other piping services and for the rudder frames, 
arms and stocks, and the stern frames. 



Wrought Iron coal bunker on the ferry boat "Meadville" 
operated in New York harbor by the Erie Railroad Com- 
pany. The smoke box, uptake, stack, and many of the 
piping services on this vessel are also of wrought iron. 




Water back line of 5" wrought iron pipe in the wall of a boiler fire box at the Chicago & 
Western Indiana Railroad roundhouse, Chicago. Here the pipe must withstand high 

temperatures as well as corrosion. 



6 




The wood hull of this U. S. Coast Guard Ice Breaker is sheathed with wrought iron to 

provide additional strength and durability. 



f 




Forging a locomotive draw-bar from wrought iron at the Conneaut, Ohio, shops of 
York, Chicago <& St. Louis Railroad. Draw-bars are subject to heavy shocks and 

iron is used to withstand the fatigue effects that result. 



the New 
wrought 



7 



Hand r g> c I blast plate6. both constructed oi wrought 

•.« •. Sandy Wall Viaduct. Fort Worth Texas. 

a mportant requirement ior 




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Wrought iron heating coils in syrup tank 
cars owned by the Corn Products Refining 
Company. 



Brine coils of wrought iron pipe 
aboard one of the ships of the 
"Great White Fleet." 



in a cold storage room 
United Fruit Company's 



Wrought iron piping on the U, 
S. Coast Guard Cutter "Hud- 
son." Wrought iron pipe is 
used extensively on board 

ships because in most services corrosion failures must be 
avoided. The main deck and berth deck of this cutter are 
also of wrought iron. 




Coarse Screen made of wrought iron 
bars installed at The Butler, Missouri, 
Sewage Disposal Plant. Screens are 
subjected to the corrosive ac- 
tion of raw sewage. 



Perforated debris buckets fabricated by welding from 
wrought iron plates for use at storm sewer inlets in 
Pittsburgh. Pa. 





9 






All water lines in the new swimming pool 
North Park. Allegheny County. Pa., are 
oi wrought ron pi;-- 



Light No. 7 in the main 
channel at Miami. Florida, 
constructed of wrought iron 
to withstand salt water cor- 



rosion. 



Outdoor relay cabinet built oi wrought 
iron plates at the West Penn Power Com- 
pany's Windsor Powi i Station. Beech 
Bottom. W. Va. An excessive amount ot 
smoke in the air makes corrosive con 
ditions very severe at this station. 




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Water turbine whtel i t with wrougM non ruimern 
loi a lary* paper mpany. 



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Pa ■ an f-xceUoni t 
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old warier; fire 








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drainage 

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O wood 

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Boiler washing system piping of wrought iron in the engine 
house at the Markham yards oi the Illinois Central Railroad. 



Wrought iron roofing, siding, 
Milwaukee Harbor Commission 
Milwaukee Harbor. 



and ventilators on the 
Transit Shed No. 1 in 



> 



i 




The New York Central Railroad's new passenger train 'Mercury." Wrought iron pipe is used 

in both the locomotive and the coaches. 



11 




Sand-drying coils ol wrought iron pipe at the Ottawa Silica 
Company plant, Ottawa, Illinois. Both abrasion and cor- 
rosion influence service liie in this application. 




Sprinkler piping of wrought iron in the aeration basin at the 
Hempstead Water Works, Hempstead, Long Island. 




Sheave wheel, 7' diameter, fabricated with wrought iron 
spokes for the Consolidation Coal Company, Fairmont, 
West Virginia. 




The CharleB Deering Memorial Library, Northwestern Un 
versity, Evanston. Illinois. The soil, waste, and vent lines, 
and the downspouts are wrought iron. 



12 





The San Francisco War Memorial Buildings in which 
wrought iron was installed lor the corrosive piping services. 



Steam coils fabricated from wrought iron pipe installed in 
a horizontal vulcanizer built for Hodgman Rubber Co.. 
Framingham. Mass. 




> 



Engine truck equalizers forged from wrought iron. This is another railroad 
service where the fatigue resistance of wrought iron is important. 




Subway type transformer tanks built of 
wrought iron plates and pipe for install' 
tion at Lock <& Dam No. 20. Canton Mo. 




Floor drainage lines or downspouts of wrought iron pipe on the new Intercity Viaduct. Kansas Cit 

The blast plates, collection boxes on downspouts, and curb drain gratings are also wrought iron. 



13 





Wrought iron pipe downspouts on train sheds at the 
& North Western Railway Suburban Passenger 
Evanston, Illinois. 



Chicago 

Station, 



The towboat "Resolute" designed by Gielow, Inc.. and 
built recently for the Providence Steamship Company. The 
entire hull of this tug was fabricated from wrought iron 
plates, using welded construction. Wrought iron has again 
come into general use for hulls, particularly on vessels 
designed to stand up under hard usage over a long period 
of years. 



- 





Pontoon pipe used in dredging operations. Wrought iron 
pipe is employed ior installations of this type because, 
among the softer ferrous metals, it has exhibited a high 
resistance to abrasion. 








Storm warning tower constructed of wrought iron structurals 
at the U. S. Weather Bureau Station, San Juan. Porto Rico. 
Atmospheric corrosion senously affects metals in the tropics 
and for that reason wrought iron was used. 




Fire protection sheets cf wrought iron on Pennsylvania Rail- 
road Bridge No. 31.31 at Downingtown, Pa. Sheets used for 
fire protection must be durable in order to be effective 
over a period of years. 



14 




One of the heat exchangers, equipped with wrought iron 
O.D. tubes and wrought iron tube sheets, installed recently 

at the plant of Penobscot Chemical Fibre Co., Great Works, 
Maine. 








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4 




Oil lease tanks constructed of galvanized wrought iron 
sheets in service on the Republic Natural Gas Company's 
Bloomer Lease, Bloomer Pool, in Kansas. Hundreds of 
wrought iron lease tanks have been installed recently in 
many fields where corrosive sour crude oils are produced. 




The Stevens Hotel in Chicago. Hundreds of tons of wrought iron pipe are in service 

in this building. 



15 




Four wrought iron furnace stacks, ranging from 100' to 150' high, erected recently at the 
Shell Petroleum Corporation's Deer Park Refinery, Houston. Texas. Wrought iron stacks 

are now used in all branches oi industry to obtain longer service life. 



16 





Wrought iron plates being installed between the ties and 
the top flanges of the steel girders on a Missouri Pacific 
Railroad bridge to protect the steel against the effect of 
brine drippings from refrigerator cars. 



Water gas generator shell constructed of wrought iron at 
the Public Service Electric & Gas Co., Kearny, N. J. 




■&. 












The hoppers on these coal larries in the boiler house at the 
Pekin, Illinois, plant of Corn Products Refining Company are 
constructed of wrought iron. The twelve stoker hoppers, into 
which the larries discharge, are also of wrought iron. 



Two wrought iron oil lines being laid across the Houston 
Ship Channel by one of the pipe line companies. At loca- 
tions such as this, the pipe is frequently subjected to ab- 
normal corrosion and wrought iron is commonly installed. 



17 




Co., condensers piped with wrought iron on the U. S. Army 
Transport "Republic". Salt water is used for cooling the 
condensers. 




Wrought iron siding sheets used as replacements on New 
York Dock Company's Pier No. 17, Brooklyn. 









9 




Spacer straps and concrete slab floor supports on one of 
the new Florida Keys Bridges. These are thin sections and 
wrought iron is used because the metal is exposed to salt 
water spray and salt air. 




The river towboat "Ranger" owned by the Pittsburgh Coal 
Company. Wrought iron was installed recently on this boat 
for re-enforcing straps on the pitman rods, boiler water 
piping, and pipe straps. 




Welding wrought iron plates to the bottom flanges of roof 
beams in a tunnel on the New York Central Railroad near 
Oswego. N. Y. The wrought iron serves the double purpose 
of strengthening the beams and protecting them against 
corrosive blasts from locomotives. 




Installing wrought iron O.D. tubes in a new shell and tube 
ammonia condenser built for Anheuser-Busch Company, St. 
Louis. Wrought iron tubes are now used generally for this 
service because condenser cooling waters are usually very 
corrosive. 



18 





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One of the ornamental wrought 
Institute, Dearborn, Michigan 



iron entrance 
Here, again, 



gates to Greenfield Village, The Edison - 
durability and beauty are combined. I 



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Launching the "William A. Thompson", one of the new 
dredges completed spring, 1937, for the U. S. Engineers. 
This vessel and its sister ship, the "Rock Island", both have 
wrought iron hulls. Also, wrought iron pipe is installed 
in many of the piping services. 



Coal pocket in the tender of one of the ten new steam loco- 
motives recently built for the New York. New Haven <£ 
Hartford Railroad. Wrought iron plates were used for the 
coal pockets and for baffle plates. 





Blow-off lines of wrought iron pipe in the Chicago round- 
house of the Chicago & Western Indiana Railroad. 



Hot water tank of wrought iron in a large apartment house 
in New York City. Tanks of this type are subjected to severe 
corrosion, hence the desirability of using wrought iron. 



19 



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■ 




Wrought iron pipe in one of the operating galleries at The 
Milwaukee Sewage Treatment Plant. Wrought iron pipe 
used for— branch connections between air headers and 
diffuser-plate containers in aeration tanks; air supply lines 
in mixing, feed, mixed liquor, and return sludge channels; 
downspouts; concealed heating returns; and railings. 




Piping in the heating plant of the New York. New Haven <£ 
Hartford Railroad at Cedar Hill, Connecticut. Wrought iron 
pipe is installed in many corrosive services and the stack 
and breeching are built of wrought iron plates. 




Ballast deck of wrought iron plates being installed on the 
Missouri Pacific Railroad's new bridge over Ivory Avenue 
in St. Louis. Wrought iron has come into general use for 
bridge decks on many large railroads. 




Welded wrought iron surge tank in the Southwestern Bell 
Telephone Company Building, San Antonio, Texas. The 
house tank and a large portion of the piping in this building 
are also of wrought iron. 




24' O.D. wTOugh ron water main on the South Tenth Street 
Bridge. Pittsburgh. Wrought iron is commonly used for in- 
stallations oi this type because of its resistance to the 
effects of vibration and corrc m. 




Smokejack constructed of wrought iron in the Western 
Avenue Roundhouse of the Chicago. Milwau*" St. Paul 6 
Pacific Railroad, Chicago. The smoke duct into which the 
jack empties is also of wrought iron. 



20 



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Laying 22.500 feet of J and 4 wTough iron condu 

carry high tension lines of the New York Central Rail 

particular: mpor 



em Ship Canal to 
Here d liry is 



— — . • 



21 






■ 




Air brake piping of wrought iron on one of the hopper cars recently built by the Norfolk <£ 
Western Railway Company. Failures of air brake lines, due to fatigue, are dangerous — 

hence the extensive use of wrought iron lor this service. 





^ U ii/////>^ 




Cau: oda tanks of wrought iron at the Coney Island 

Sewage Treatment Plant. Brooklyn. New York. These tanks 
re of all-welded construction. 



Cooling coils of wrought iron pipe in the freezing room at 
Abbott's Dairies, Inc.. Philadelphia. 





nace smoke pipe made of wrought iron sheets in servic 
in a Chicago building. 



Installing a wrought iron fuel oil tank underground dl a 
large Pittsburgh manufacturing plant. Wrought iron is 
desirable for this type service because of its high resistance 
to soil corrosion. 



22 




Wrought iron key plates used at the joints 
in the new concrete intercepting sewer 
built by the Minneapolis-St. Paul Sanitary 
District. Wrought iron is desirable for such 
services as key plates and concrete stops 
because the material is not accessible for 
repairs after installation. 






Steps for railroad passenger cars on the 
Norfolk Southern Railroad. The sides of the 
steps are of "wrought iron sheets. 



Blast main equipment fabricated from 
wrought iron plates for a large industrial 
plant. 



Main engine discharge line 
of wrought iron pipe on the 
Motorship "Santa Barbara" 
owned by the Grace Line. 




Milk can washer constructed of wrought 
iron sheets in service at the Nestle's Milk 
Products Company plant, Sunbury, Ohio. 



I 




Pier protection plates of wrought iron on concrete approach Pier 7-E of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Draw Bridge No. 4.22 over the Passaic River. Wrought iron plates are now used 

extensively to protect concrete piers against deterioration in both fresh and salt water. 



23 



Water storage tank, of 1.000,000 gallons' capacity, fabricated from wrought iron plates at 
the New England plant of a large manufacturer of photographic supplies. An uninterrupted 

supply of pure water is absolutely necessary at this plant. 






Wrought iron pipe is used on locomotives be juse it re 

caused by vibration, and corrosion. 



both fatigue. 



Wrought iron pipe in the new beef slaugh 
er house built by Armour 6 Company, in 

Chicago. 



24 




lacking -wrought iron conduit underground 
to carry traffic signal light cable. This 
installation was made at Bigelow Boule- 
vard and Craig Street, Pittsburgh, Pa. 




Water-tight bulkheads, fabricated from wrought iron sheets and angles, on one 
of the patrol boats built in 1936 for the U, S. Coast Guard. The stack, bridge 

enclosure, and wearing strips were also of wrought iron. 




Attemperator coils fabricated from wrought iron pipe for 

Blatz Brewing Company, Milwaukee. 




Wrought iron pipe being installed in a water well at the plant 
Brewing Company, Milwaukee. Well piping must be durable 
corrosion failures are not only difficult to repair, but may permit 
of the water supply. 



of Miller 

because 

pollution 



25 




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nt 



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hoy 






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Coal elevator casing of wrought iron 
at The American Oak Leather Com- 
pany plant, Louisville. Ky. 





Sp ikler tyitcm piping ol wroughl on in the Polk Street Warehouse o( th 

Pennsylvania Railroad. Chicago. 








The new floral conservatory, known as the 
Jewel Box", in Forest Park. St. Louis. 
The U-bar uprights that carry the glass 
frames, and the heating system piping 
are wrought iron. 





Gas engine jacket water-cooling coils of 
wrought iron pipe suspended in the aera- 
tion tanks at the activated sludge plant of 
The Greater Peoria Sanitary and Sewage 
Disposal District. Peoria. III. Hot water on 
the inside and sewage on the outside of 
this pipe make corrosion severe and 
durable metal necessary. 




Wrought iron piping in the new Jos. E. 
Seagram <£ Sons distillery. Louisville. 
Kentucky. Wrought iron is used in many 
services where corrosion is an important 

factor. 




Wrought iron emptying 
valve in the river wall of 
Lock No. 2. Allegheny River. 
The filling valve is also of 

wrought iron. 





Wrought iron skin plates 
were used on the gates of 
the new dam built by the 
U. S. Engineers across the 
Ohio River at Emsworth. Pa. 



Wrought iron pipe in the underground 
hot water heating system owned by the 
La Porte Gas & Electric Company. La 

Porte, Indiana. 



27 





Locomotive coaling station 
built by the Missouri Pacific 
Railroad at Myrick, Missouri. 
The coal bins, hoppers, and 
chutes are wrought iron. 




Ornamental wrought iron railings at the 
new Tower Administration and Library 
Extension Building at the University of 
Texas. Austin. 



Coal spouts of wrought iron in the boiler 
house at the Carnation Company's plant, 
Oconomowoc, Wisconsin. Both corrosion 
and abrasion influence the service life of 
coal-handling equipment. 




Sewage sludge lines of 6" and 8" wrought 
iron pipe at the Dearborn, Michigan, 
Sewage Treatment Plant. 




Hand-forged wrought iron fence around 
the estate of Mr. John Mabee. Tulsa, 
Oklahoma. Genuine wrought iron has no 
substitute for tine ornamental work — it 
offers both beauty of finish and long life. 




Wrought iron plate housing around the pumping unit of the mechanical screen 
in the comminutor basin at the Sewage Treatment Plant Pittsfield, Mass. 



28 



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Small boat pier constructed of wrought iron on the Wm. B. 
Stimson estate, Sutton's Island, Maine. 



> 




Air process pipe constructed of wrought iron at the Fleisch- 
mann Yeast plant of Standard Brands, Inc., Peekskill, N. Y. 
River water supply and return lines, city water and process 
water lines, and brine lines at this plant are also 
wrought iron. 




Bleach boiler, T diam. x 21' long, constructed of wrought 
iron and recently installed at the L. L. Brown Paper Com- 
pany plant, Adams, Mass. Wrought iron pipe and tanks are 
used extensively in the paper industry to minimize the 
effect of corrosion. 




- • * 


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Culvert pipe made of corrugated wrought iron sheets being 
placed in service at Waterbury, Conn. Wrought iron is very 
desirable for this application because of its high resistance 
to soil corrosion. 




The De Paul Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri. In this building 
the hot and cold water lines, all drainage lines, high and 
low pressure steam lines, and brine lines were specified 
wrought iron pipe. 




Heating lines of wrought iron pipe in underground tunnels 
at The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. Durability of 
pipe means reliability in a heating system. 



29 




Wrought iron "tell-tale" poles on 
the Staten Island Rapid Transit 
Railway. 





Running wrought iron tubing in an oil well 
in one of the Oklahoma fields. Salt water, 
produced with oil and hydrogen sulphide 
cause rapid corrosion of well equipment. 
Wrought iron tubing is used extensively to 
minimize the effect of corrosion. 




Trash racks, fabricated by welding from 
wrought iron bars, angles, and channels, 
for the tunnel intakes at Fort Peck Dam 
in Montana. 





Horizontal atmospheric condens- 
ers, built of wrought iron pipe, at 
the Chicago plant of a large meat 
packer. 




Air cone oning system water 
nes installed using wrought iron 
pipe in one of the Rockefeller 
Center Buildings. New York City 



Watch-case heaters for curing tire casings 
at the General Tire <£ Rubber Company. 
Akron. Ohio. Steam, water, and air lines are 
wrought iron. 



Laying a large O.D. wrought iron 
water line at the Wyandotte, 
Michigan, Power Plant. 



30 




Fine residences deserve fine piping systems. The cold 
water, drainage, and steam heating return lines in this 
Rochester, N. Y., residence are wrought iron pipe. 



> 




Wrought iron pipe installed in the condenser cooling-water 
lines leading to the cooling tower on the roof of the Reid 
Ice Cream Company's plant, New York City. 




The Marquette University High School in Milwaukee has 
wrought iron pipe in the hot and cold water lines, rain 
leaders, concealed heating mains, risers, and heating 
return lines. 




Boiler breeching constructed of wrought iron plates at the 
plant of W. F. Schrafft & Sons Corp., Boston. Wrought iron 
has a long record of service in the handling of corrosive 
flue gases. 




60" O.D. wrought iron pipe, installed as a part of the Big 
Creek Intercepting Sewer Line at Cleveland, Ohio. This 
line carries both domestic and strong industrial sewage to 
the disposal plant. 




Yeast tubs of welded construction, built of wrought iron 
plates, for the Hiram Walker and Son's distillery, Peoria, 111. 




Sewage Gas Collection Domes installed over the gas slots 
in the digestion tanks at the Angola, Indiana, Sewage Dis- 
posal Plant. Sewage gas is corrosive and wrought iron is 
used for domes and connecting piping in many new plants. 



31 




Fire screens or curtains and sprinkler sys- 
tem piping of wrought iron plates and pipe 
beneath the wood deck of the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad's Pier No. 28, North River, 
New York City. 






Beer cooler at the Pabst Breweries, Milwaukee. Wrought iron pipe is used 
for this and other refrigeration services. 




Large wrought iron pipe coils fabricated for one of the large soap manu- 
facturing plants. Wrought iron is used for many services in the soap industry. 




Brine piping being installed in the ice 
Rink, Princeton University. 45,000 feet 

this floor. 



skating floor at the Baker Memorial 
of wrought iron pipe was used in 




Rudder of wrought iron plate on a tanker 
owned by one of the large oil companies. 



Laying wrought iron pipe in the lawn-sprinkling system at the Wyoming 
State Capitol, Cheyenne. 



32 



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St Louis. Mo, 
Arcade Building 

Washington. D. C. 
Shoreham Building 



Philadelphia, Pa. 

Girard Trust Building 

San Francisco, CaliL 
Bialto Building 

Seattle, Wash. 
Smith Tower Building 



5M-1247 



PrtBted la U. S. A.